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2020 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试管理类专业硕士学位联考英语模考一

来源:华章 时间:2019-10-02

  英语(二)1A

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  US President Donald Trump's administration is to make it more difficult for poorer legalmigrants to extend their visas or gain permanent resident status (a green card). The rule targets  1 who rely on public benefits, such as food 2 or public housing, for more than a year.

Their 3 will be rejected if the government decides they are likely to 4 public assistance in future. The rule change would reinforce "ideals of 5 ," officials said. Anyone who relies on one or more publicly 6 social safety net benefits, such as Medicaid or 7 stamps, is known as a “public charge.” According to this rule, an immigrant will be 8 as a “public charge” if that person “receives one or more designated public benefits for more than 12 months in the aggregate 9 any 36-month period.”

The new 10 , known as a "public charge rule", was 11 in the Federal Register on Monday and will 12 on October 15. Immigrants who are already 13 residents in the US are unlikely to be affected by the rule 14 . 15 immigrants would not be affected—unless an avenue opens up for them to 16 green cards or visas since they are largely ineligible for public aid.

It also does not apply to refugees and asylum applicants. 17 applicants for visa extensions, green cards or US citizenship will be subject to the change. Those who do not 18 income standards or who are deemed likely to rely on 19 such as Medicaid (government-run healthcare) or housing vouchers in future may be 20 from entering the country.

  1. A. migrants B. administrators C. residents D. settlers

  2. A. demand B. consumption C. purchase D. aid

  3. A. complaints B. requirements C. applications D. aspirations

  4. A. base on B. depend on C. give up D. insist on

  5. A. sufficiency B. efficiency C. proficiency D. deficiency

  6. A. recognized B. funded C. traded D. authorized

  7. A. food B. mail C. water D. supermarket

  8. A. allocated B. delivered C. designated D. assigned

  9. A. within B. for C. since D. by

  10. A. administration B. federation C. regulation D. constitution

  11. A. abolished B. polished C. published D. accomplished

  12. A. take effect B. have effect C. bring effect D. in effect

  13. A. temporary B. permanent C. provisory D. unauthorized

  14. A. efficiency B. charge C. effectiveness D. change

  15. A. registered B. justified C. imbalanced D. undocumented

  16. A. request for B. apply for C. look up D. search for

  17. A. Because B. Since C. furthermore D. But

  18. A. draw B. set C. meet D. improve

  19. A. subsidies B. welfares C. allowances D. benefits

  20. A. stayed B. isolated C. expelled D. blocked

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Before the 1970s, college students were treated as children. So many colleges ran in loco parentis system. “In loco parentis” is a Latin term meaning “in the place of a parent.” It describes when someone else accepts responsibility to act in the interests of a child.

This idea developed long ago in British common law to define the responsibility of teachers toward their students. For years, American courts upheld in loco parentis in cases such as Gott versus Berea College in 1913. Gott owned a restaurant off campus. Berea threatened to expel students who ate at places not owned by the school. The Kentucky high court decided that in loco parentis justified that rule.

In loco parentis meant that male and female college students usually had to live in separate buildings. Women had to be back at their dorms by ten or eleven on school nights. But in the 1960s, students began to protest rules and restrictions like these. At the same time, courts began to support students who were being punished for political and social dissent.

  In 1960, Alabama State College expelled six students who took part in a civil rights demonstration. They sued the school and won. After that it became harder and harder to defend in loco parentis.

At that time, students were not considered adults until 21. Then, in 1971, the 24th amendment to the Constitution set the voting age at eighteen. So, in loco parentis no longer really applied.

Slowly, colleges began to treat students not as children, but as adults. Students came to be seen as consumers of educational services.

Gary Dickstein, an assistant vice president at Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio, says in loco parentis is not really gone. It just looks different. Today’s parents, he says, are often heavily involved in students’ lives. They are known as “helicopter parents.” They always seem to hover over their children. Gary Dickstein says these parents are likely to question decisions, especially about safety issues and grades. They want to make sure their financial investment is not being wasted.

  21. Before the 1970s, many colleges ran in loco parentis system because________.

  A. they could take the place of the students’ parents

  B. parents asked them to do it for the interests of their children

  C. this was a tradition established by British colleges

  D. college students were regarded as too young to be treated as adults

  22. Who won the case of Gott versus Berea College in 1913?

  A. Berea College.

  B. Gott.

  C. It was a win-win case.

  D. The students.

  23. The word “dissent” (Para.4) probably means _______.

  A. extreme behaviors

  B. violation of laws

  C. strong disagreement

  D. wrong doings

  24. According to Gary Dickstein, today’s “helicopter parents”_______.

  A. don’t set their hearts at rest with college administrators

  B. keep a watchful eye on their children’s life and study

  C. care less about their children’s education than before

  D. have different opinions on their children’s education

  25. Which of the following can be the best title of this article?

  A. The New Relationship Between Parents and Their Children.

  B. Colleges Can’t Discipline Their Students Anymore.

  C. In Loco Parentis Is Gone with the Wind.

  D. The Shifting Profile of In Loco Parentis.

  Text 2

  We tend to think of plants as the furniture of the natural word. They don’t move, they don’t make sounds, they don’t seem to respond to anything—at least not very quickly. But as is often the case, our human view of the world misses quite a lot. Plants talk to each other all the time. And the language is chemical.

Over the years scientists have reported that different types of plants, from trees to tomatoes, release compounds into the air to help neighboring plants. These chemical warnings all have the same purpose—to spread information about one plant’s disease so other plants can defend themselves. But exactly how plants receive and act on many of these signals is still mysterious.

In this week’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers in Japan offer some explanations. They have identified one chemical message and traced it all the way from release to action.

The scientists looked at tomato plants infested(侵害) by common pest, the cutworm caterpillar(毛虫). To start out, they grew plants in two plastic compartments connected by a tube. One plant was infested and placed upwind and the others were uninfested and placed downwind. The downwind plants were later exposed to the cutworm caterpillar. The results showed that plants that had previously been near sick neighbors were able to defend themselves better against the caterpillar.

The researchers also studied leaves from exposed and unexposed plants. They found one compound showed up more often in the exposed plants. The substance is called Hex Vic. When the scientists fed Hex Vic to cutworms, it knocked down their survival rate by 17%. The scientists identified the source of Hex Vic, and sprayed it lightly over healthy plants. Those plants were then able to start producing the caterpillar-killing Hex Vic. Researchers confirmed that uninfested plants have to build their own weapon to fight off bugs and diseases. How do they know when to play defense? They are warned first by their friendly plant neighbors.

It is a complex tale, and it may be happening in more plant species than tomatoes. It may also be happening with more chemical signals that are still unknown to us. For now though, we know that plants not only communicate, they look out for one another.

  26. What does the author try to emphasize in Paragraph 1?

  A. How plants communicate is still a mystery.

  B. Enough attention has been paid to plant talk.

  C. Plants are the furniture of the natural world.

  D. Plants can communicate with each other.

  27. According to Paragraph2, what remains unknown is ______.

  A. how plants receive and handle the signals from their neighbors

  B. why plants spread chemical information to their neighbors

  C. how many types of plants release compounds into the air

  D. whether plants send chemical warnings to their neighbors

  28. The tomato plants in the experiment were ______.

  A. placed separately but connected through air

  B. exposed to different kinds of pests

  C. exposed to the pest at the same time

  D. placed together in a closed compartment

  29. The experiment shows that the infested plant helps its neighbors by ______.

  A. making more Hex Vic to attract the pest

  B. releasing Hex Vic into the air to warn them

  C. letting them know how to produce Hex Vic

  D. producing enough Hex Vic to kill the pest

  30. What may be the best title for the passage?

  A. Survival of Plants

  B. Plant World

  C. Talking Plants

  D. Plant Bug Killer

  Text 3

  On how the world has changed over the last 50 years, not all of it has been good. As you are looking for organic food information, you have obviously become aware that a better alternative exists and you are taking a critical look at the source and production practices of the companies producing the world’s food supplies.

The purpose of organic food information is to give you an understanding of what is going into your food. You will see that there are many benefits to organic food that you didn’t know before. The basis behind knowing about organic food information is the fact that farmers are resorting to using artificial fertilizers and pesticides (杀虫剂) to control disease and insect attack in order to produce more crops to satisfy growing demand. These artificial fertilizers leave something poisonous in and on the fruit and vegetables we consume which in turn is absorbed and stored by our bodies.

Even the quality of food has gone down in recent years. Today’s fruits have nowhere near the Vitamin C levels they did at one time. However, with organic food information you learn that organic food has fifty percent more nutrients, minerals and vitamins than any other form of produce that has been grown under intensive farming. If you are eating non-organic produce you will have eat more fruit in order to make up for this deficiency. But then the dangerous cycle continues since you will be eating more chemicals that are worse for your health than they are good for you.

  Another aspect of organic food information is the production of meat and poultry (家禽). Most only consider produce when it comes to organic food information disregarding the antibiotics and hormones that are given to both cattle and poultry that are being force fed. Ask yourself what happens to all these antibiotics and hormones when the animal is killed, the remaining of these antibiotics and growth hormones resides in the meat which are then consumed, digested and stored in human bodies. There is no way that an animal that isn’t kept in healthy conditions can produce healthy food for humans to eat.

  You have nothing to lose by trying organic product, not only will it be healthy for you but you will also be able to eat produce and meat the way they are supposed to be. You will likely be so impressed with the taste of organic fruit that you will never return to the mass-produced fruit again. While cost and availability can be a big issue for some, you can do a bit of research online and find a local store that stocks organic produce for a reasonable price.

  31. It is stated in Paragraph 1 that organic food________.

  A. is considered as a better choice

  B. is mostly supplied by world-famous companies

  C. has become popular over the last 50 years

  D. reflects the change of production practices

  32. Farmers use artificial fertilizers and pesticides to________.

  A. satisfy people’s critical demand

  B. develop better farming technology

  C. get a higher crop yield

  D. keep people in better health

  33. According to Paragraph 3, organic food________.

  A. has gone down in quality

  B. has more nutrients

  C. can replace mass-produced food

  D. lacks Vitamin C

  34. What does the author say about meat and poultry?

  A. Organic meat and poultry is hardly available.

  B. A great amount of meat is consumed every year.

  C. Merciless killing of the animals lowers their quality.

  D. They may contain antibiotics and growth hormones.

  35. In the last paragraph, people are advised to _______.

  A. eat traditional produce and meat

  B. return to mass-produced fruits

  C. do the cost and availability research

  D. try organic product for better health and taste

  Text 4

  Drinking wastewater? The idea may sound distasteful, but new federally funded research says more Americans are doing so—whether they know or not—and this reuse will be increasingly necessary as the U.S. population expands.

Treated wastewater poses no greater health risks than existing water supplies and, in some cases, may be even safer to drink, according to a report released by the National Research Council. “We believe water reuse is an option to deal with growing water scarcity, especially in coastally areas,” says Jorg Drewes, an engineering professor at the Colorado School of Mines. “This can be done reliably without putting the public at risk,” he says, citing technological advances. He says it’s a waste not to reuse the nation’s wastewater, because almost all of it is treated before discharge. This water includes storm runoff (径流) as well as used water from homes, business and factories.

In many places, the report says, the public does not realize it’s drinking water that was treated after being discharged as wastewater somewhere upstream. For example, wastewater discharged into the Trinity River from Dallas/Fort Worth flows south into Lake Livingston, the source for Houston’s drinking water.

Despite the growing importance of this reuse, the report says there’s been no systemic analysis of its extent nationwide since a 1980 study by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Alan Roberson of the American Water Works Association says wastewater reuse is common, so the council’s report is important but not surprising. Roberson expects this recycling will continue to increase, especially for irrigation and industrial needs. He says it will take longer to establish potable (适于饮用的) uses because of public nervousness about drinking wastewater, however treated.

“We have to do something to address water scarcity,” says Olga Naidenko, a senior scientist at the non-profit Environmental Working Group. “Less than 10% of potable water is used for drinking, cooking, showering or dishwashing. We flush it down the toilet, literally.” Technologies exist to safely treat the water, she says, although some are expensive.

The report says water reuse projects tend to cost more than most water conservation options but less than sweater desalination (脱盐) and other supply alternatives. It calls on the EAP to develop rules that set safe national standards.

  36. As can be learned from Paragraph 1, drinking wastewater .

  A. is to become a growing necessity

  B. is well received by the Americans

  C. has caused heated public debates

  D. has become the dominant option

  37. Which of the following statements would Jorg Drewes agree to?

  A. Water reuse may eventually put the public at risk.

  B. Water reuse is preferable to wasting water.

  C. Water reuse is far from a solution to water shortage.

  D. Water reuse is possible only after greater tech advances.

  38. Lake Livingston is mentioned to show that the public .

  A. accepts the fact of drinking wastewater calmly

  B. is concerned about the safety of the drinking water

  C. does not believe that wastewater is safe to drink

  D. is not aware of the nature of their drinking water

  39. According to Alan Roberson, .

  A. it is not safe to drink wastewater

  B. the public has yet to accept drinking wastewater

  C. the report helps build up public confidence

  D. the report has surprised the public

  40. What does the report suggest to the EPA?

  A. Weighing different water conservation options.

  B. Exploring new technologies to treat wastewater.

  C. Setting up national standards for water reuse.

  D. Monitoring water supplies at a national level.

  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column, Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Voters in 21 European nations streamed to the polls Sunday in the final day of pivotal elections for the European Union parliament, a continent-wide referendum pitting nationalist and populist candidates against those calling for tighter EU unity.

The four days of voting began Thursday across the 28-nation EU, with 426 million people eligible to vote in contests for the 751-member legislature. The elections are considered the most important since 1979, when the first international vote was held for the EU parliament.

In the current vote, right-wing nationalists are hoping to elect candidates to reshape EU policies to slash immigration into Europe and are expected to make gains, although mainstream parties are expected to retain power in the assembly that sits in both Brussels and Strasbourg.

  One anti-migrant, hard-line nationalist, Italy's Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, said that he was sensing a "change in the air" and that a victory by his right-wing League party would "change everything in Europe."

By late Sunday, exit polls in Germany and Greece showed that centrist governing parties would lose seats in the new formation of the continent-wide parliament.

The exit poll in Germany showed the environmental-based Green Party gaining ground, finishing in second place behind Chancellor Angela Merkel's conservatives and ahead of the center-left Social Democrats. Merkel's Christian Democrats and the Social Democrats slumped from their 2014 standing, with the far right also expected to gain seats.

French President Emmanuel Macron has called for closer ties throughout the continent, even as Britain struggles to leave the EU. He has said that the EU "is facing an existential risk" from nationalists trying to divide the bloc.

Projections released last month by the European Parliament show the center-right EPP bloc losing 37 of its 217 seats and the center-left S&D group dropping from 186 seats to 149. On the far right flank, the Europe of Nations and Freedom group is predicted to increase its bloc from 37 to 62 seats.

The last polls close late Sunday in Italy but the European Parliament plans to begin issuing estimates and projections hours earlier with the first official projection of the makeup of the new parliament shortly after all polls have closed.

EU leaders are meeting Tuesday to begin selecting candidates for the top jobs at the EU's headquarters in Brussels. Current European lawmakers' terms end July 1, with the new parliament taking over the following day. A. demonstrates a tendency of centrist governing parties losing power in the parliament.

  Section III Translation

  Directions:

  Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)

  Costco has built a cult following in the United States—now it's China's turn. The country's first Costco store is so popular that it had to shut down early on its first day because of too many shoppers. The retailer opened its first physical outlet in Shanghai on August, 27th, and it quickly got too crowded to stay open.

  Police were deployed to restore order and manage traffic jams around the store, with law enforcement urging people to remain calm. “For your safety, we hope citizens who want to go to Costco can maintain a rational attitude about consumption and avoid going out during rush hours. Those who have already gone there, you must follow orders.” the Shanghai police said in a statement on its verified account on Chinese social network Weibo.

  While Costco has had an online presence in China for five years through a partnership with Chinese e-commerce firm Alibaba, the new brick-and-mortar store in Shanghai marks a significant investment.

  Costco's annual membership program, which accounts for the bulk of its profit, is also cheaper in China—it costs 299 yuan ($42) compared to $60 in the United States.

  Section IV Writing

  46. Part A

  Directions:

  You found something wrong with the mobile bill you have received from your mobile phone service provider. You made a call to inquire about this; however, the person who answered the call was very rude. Write a letter

  1) complain to the manager of the company, explaining the situation, and

  2) give your suggestions for improvement.

  You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not use you own name. Use Zhang Wei instead.

  Do not write your own address. (10 point)

  Part B

  48. Directions:

  Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments.   

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

 

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