Passage 11 (美国文化特点)
A characteristic of American culture that has become almost a tradition is to respect the self-made man — the man who has risen to the top through his own efforts, usually beginning by working with his hands. While the leader in business or industry or the college professor occupies a higher social position and commands greater respect in the community than the common laborer or even the skilled factory worker, he may take pains to point out that his father started life in America as a farmer or laborer of some sort.
This attitude toward manual(体力的)labor is now still seen many aspects of American life. One is invited to dinner at a home that is not only comfortably but even luxuriously(豪华地)furnished and in which there is every evidence of the fact the family has been able to afford foreign travel, expensive hobbies, and college education for the children; yet the hostess probably will cook the dinner herself, will serve it herself and will wash dishes afterward, furthermore the dinner will not consist merely of something quickly and easily assembled from contents of various cans and a cake or a pie bought at the nearby bakery. On the contrary, the hostess usually takes pride in careful preparation of special dishes. A professional may talk about washing the car, digging in his flowerbeds, painting the house. His wife may even help with these things, just as he often helps her with the dishwashing. The son who is away at college may wait on table and wash dishes for his living, or during the summer he may work with a construction gang on a highway in order to pay for his education.
11. From paragraph 1, we know that in America _______.从第一段我们可以知道在美国_______?
A. people tend to have a high opinion of the self-made man人们对自我奋斗的人评价很高
B. people can always rise to the top through their own efforts
C. college professors win great respect from common workers
D. people feel painful to mention their fathers as labors
12. According to the passage, the hostess cooks dinner herself mainly because _______.
A. servants in American are hard to get
B. she takes pride in what she can do herself 她对自己可以做的事情感到自豪
C. she can hardly afford servants D. It is easy to prepare a meal with canned food
13. The expression “wait on table” in the second paragraph means “_______”.
A. work in a furniture shop B. keep accounts for a bar
C. wait to lay the table D. serve customers in a restaurant在餐厅为客人服务
14. The author’s attitude towards manual(体力的)labor is _______.作者对体力劳动者的态度如何?
A. positive 积极的 B. negative C. humorous D. critical
15. Which of the following may serve as the best title of the passage?
A. A Respectable Self-made Family.
B. American Attitude toward Manual Labor. 美国人对体力劳动者的态度
C. Characteristics of American Culture. D. The Development of Manual Labor.
Passage 12 (如何发明单词/文字)
How men first learnt to invent words is unknown; in other words, the origin of language is a mystery. All we really know is that men, unlike animals, somehow invented certain sounds to express thought and feelings, actions and things, so that they could communicate with each other; and that later they agreed upon certain signs, called letters, which could be combined to present those sounds, and which could be written down. Those sounds, whether spoken or written in letters, we call words.
The power of words, then, lies in their associations-the thing they bring up before our minds. Words become filled with meaning for us by experience; and the longer we live, the more certain words recall to us the glad and sad events of our past; and the more we read and learn, the more the number of words that mean something increases.
Great writers are those who not only have great thoughts but also express these thoughts in words which appeal powerfully to our minds and emotions. This charming and telling use of words is what we call literary style. Above all, the real poet is a master of words. He can convey his meaning in words which sing like music and which by their position and association can move men to tears. We should therefore learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they will make our speech silly and vulgar.
6. The origin of language is _______. 语言的起源是：
A. a legend handed down from the past B. a matter that is hidden or secret
C. a question difficult to answer D. a problem not yet solved一个还未解决的问题
7. What is true about words? 关于词汇哪一项是对的?
A. They are used to express feelings only. B. They can not be written down.
C. They are simply sounds. 他们是简单的声音 D. They are mysterious.
8. The real power of words lies in their _______. 文字的真正力量在于其____
A. properties B. characteristics
C. peculiarity D. representative function 代表功能
9. By “association”, the author means _______. 作者用“联系性”这个词指
A. a special quality B. a joining of ideas in the mind头脑中思想的联接
C. an appearance which is puzzling D. a strange feature
10. Which of the following statements about the real poet is NOT true?
A. He is no more than a master of words. 他只不过是一个文字的掌握者。
B. He can convey his ideas in words which sing like music.
C. He can move men to tears. D. His style is always charming.
Passage 13 (羞怯不快乐原因)
Shyness is the cause of much unhappiness for a great many people. Shy people are anxious and self-conscious; that is, they are excessively concerned with their own appearance and actions. Worrisome thoughts are constantly occurring in their minds: what kind of impression am I making? Do they like me? Do I sound stupid? Am I wearing unattractive clothes?
It is obvious that such uncomfortable feelings must negatively affect people. A person’s conception of himself or herself is reflected in the way he or she behaves, and the way a person behaves affects other people’s reactions. In general, the way people think about themselves has a profound effect on all areas of their lives.
Shy people, having low self-esteem, are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others. They need reassurance that they are doing “the right thing.” Shy people are very sensitive to criticism; they feel it confirms their feelings of inferiority. They also find it difficult to be pleased by compliment with a statement like this one, “You’re just saying that to make me feel good. I know it’s not true.” It is clear that while self-awareness is a healthy quality, overdoing it is harmful.
Can shyness be completely eliminated, or at least reduced? Fortunately, people can overcome shyness with determined and patient efforts in building self-confidence. Since shyness goes hand in hand with a lack of self-esteems, it is important for people to accept their weakness as well as their strengths.
Each one of us is a unique, worthwhile individual, interested in our own personal ways. The better we understand ourselves, the easier it becomes to live up to our full potential. Let’s not allow shyness to block our chances for a rich and fulfilling life.
11. What does the author try to prove by citing “what kind of impression am I making?”
A. Shy people benefit from their caring about their appearance.
B. People’s shyness made them care too much about their appearance and actions.
C. It’s natural that shy people don’t believe other’s compliments.
D. Shy people think they are different from others.
12. According to the writer, self-awareness is _______.根据作者的观点，自知之明是一件_______
A. a good quality 好事 B. the cause of unhappiness
C. harmful to people D. a weak point of shy people
13. When being praised, shy people feel that it is _______.当被赞扬的时候，羞怯的人感到这是_______
A. good B. unreal 不真实的 C. very reasonable D. harmful
14. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A. Shyness helps us to develop our potential.
B. Shyness enables us to understand ourselves better.
C. Shyness can block our chances for a rich life. 羞怯能够阻碍我们实现富裕人生的机会。
D. Shyness has nothing to do with lack of self-esteem.
15. It can be inferred from the passage that shy people _______.从文章中可以推断出羞怯的人_______
A. should find more of their weakness
B. should understand themselves in the right way应当以正确的方式看待自己
C. had better ignore their weakness
D. can get rid of their shyness while maintaining low self-esteem
Passage 14 (美国打电话)
In the United States, it is not customary to telephone someone very early in the morning. If you telephone him early in the day, while he is shaving or having breakfast, the time of the call shows that the matter is very important and requires immediate attention. The same meaning is attached to telephone calls made after 11:00 p.m. If someone receives a call during sleeping hours, he assumes it’s a matter of life or death. The time chosen for the call communicates its importance. In social life, time plays a very important part. In the U.S.A. guests tend to feel they are not highly regarded if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date. But it is not true in all countries. In other areas of the world, it may be considered foolish to make an appointment too far in advance because plans which are made for a date more than a week away tend to be forgotten. The meaning of time differs in different parts of the world. Thus, misunderstandings arise between people from different cultures that treat time differently. Promptness is valued highly in American life, for example. If people are not prompt, they may be regarded as impolite or not fully responsible. In the U.S. no one would think of keeping a business associate waiting for an hour, it would be too impolite. A person who is 5 minutes late, will say a few words of explanation, though perhaps he will not complete the sentence. (260 words)
6. What is the main idea of this passage? __________ 以下哪项表达了本文的中心思想?
A. It is not customary to telephone someone in the morning and in sleeping hours in the U.S.
B. The role of time in social life over the world. 世界各地时间在社会生活中扮演的角色。
C. If people are not prompt, they may be regarded as impolite or not fully responsible in the U.S.
D. Not every country treats the concept of time as the same.
7. What does it mean in the passage if you call someone during his or her sleeping hours? __________
A. A matter of work.
B. A matter of life or death. 这是一件事关生死的大事
C. You want to see him or her.
D. You want to make an appointment with him or her.
8. Which of the following time is proper if you want to make an appointment with your friend? __________
A. at 7: 00 am. B. at 4:00 pm. 下午4点 C. at the midnight. D. at 4:00 am.
9. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? __________
A. In the U.S.A guests tend to feel they are highly regarded if the invitation to a dinner party is extended only three or four days before the party date.
B. There is no misunderstanding arising between people from different cultures about the concept of time.
C. It may be considered foolish to make an appointment well in advance in the U.S.A..
D. Promptness is valued highly in American life. 准时在美国社会是受到高度认可的。
10. From the passage we can safely infer that __________. 从本文我们可以得出：
A. it’s a matter of life or death if you call someone in day time
B. the meaning of time differs in different parts of the world 世界各地的时间观念是不同的。
C. it makes no difference in the U.S. whether you are early or late for a business party
D. if a person is late for a date, he needn’t make some explanation
Passage 15 (目标有三种)
There are three kinds of goals: short-term, medium-range and long-term goals.
Short-term goals are those that usually deal with current activities, which we can apply on a daily basis. Such goals can be achieved in a week or less, or two weeks, or possibly, months. It should be remembered that just as a building is no stronger than its foundation, long-term goals cannot amount to very much without the achievement of solid short-term goals. Upon completing our short-term goals, we should date the occasion and then add new short-term goals that will build on those that have been completed.
The intermediate goals build on the foundation of the short-term goals. They might deal with just one term of school or the entire school year, or they could even extend for several years. Any time you move a step at a time, you should never allow yourself to become discouraged or overwhelmed. As you complete each step, you will enforce the belief in your ability to grow and succeed. And as your list of completion dates grow, your motivation and desire will increase.
Long-term goals may be related to our dreams of the future. They might cover five years or more. Life is not a static thing. We should never allow a long-term goal to limit us or our course of action.(221 words)
11. Our long-term goals mean a lot ____________.
A. If we cannot reach solid short-term goals B. If we complete the short-term goals
C. If we have dreams of the future D. If we put forward some plans
12. New short-term goals are built upon ____________. 短期目标是以以前完成的目标为前提的。
A. a daily basis B. your achievement in a week
C. current activities D. the goals that have been completed
13. When we complete each step of our goals, ____________.每完成一个目标，将会增加我们成功的信心。
A. we will win final success B. we are overwhelmed
C. we should build up confidence of success D. we should have strong desire for setting new goals
14. What is the main idea of this passage? ____________ 这篇短文的中心思想是什么?
A Life is a dynamic thing. B. we should set up long-term goals
C. Different kinds of goals in life. 目标的不同种类。 D. The limitation of long-term goals.
15. Which of the following statements is wrong according to the passage? ____________
A. The long-term goals cannot amount to very much without the achievement of solid short-term goals
B. The intermediate goals build on the foundation of the short-term goals.
C. Life is a static thing, thus we should never allow a long-term goal to limit us or our course of action.
D. We should often add new short-term goals to those which have been completed.
Many people who work in London prefer to live outside it, and to go in to their offices or schools every day by train, car or bus, even though this means they have to get up early in the morning and reach home late in the evening.
One advantage of living outside London is that houses are cheaper. Even a small flat in London without a garden costs quite a lot to rent. With the same money, one can get a little house in the country with a garden of one’s own.
Then, in the country one can really get away from the noise and hurry of busy working lives. Even though one has to get up earlier and spend more time in trains or buses, one can sleep better at night and during weekends and on summer evenings, one can enjoy the fresh, clean air of the country. If one likes gardens, one can spend one’s free time digging, planting, watering and doing the hundred and one other jobs which are needed in a garden. Then, when the flowers and vegetables come up, one has got the reward together with those who have shared the secret of Nature.
Some people, however, take no interest in country things: for them, happiness lies in the town, with its cinemas and theatres, beautiful shops and busy streets, dance-halls and restaurants. Such people would feel that their life was not worth living if they had to live it outside London. An occasional walk in one of the parks and a fortnight’s (two weeks) visit to the sea every summer is all the country they want: the rest they are quite prepared to leave to those who are glad to get away from London every night.
6. Which of the following statements is NOT true? 下列哪个陈述是不对的?
A. People who love Nature prefer to live outside the city.
B. All the people who work in London prefer to live in the country.
C. Some people enjoying city life prefer to work and live inside London.
D. Many nature lovers, though working in London, prefer to live outside the city.
7. With the same money needed for _______, one can buy a little house with a garden in the country.
A. getting a small flat with a garden B. having a small flat with a garden
C. renting a small flat without a garden 租一套没有花园的小公寓
D. buying a small flat without a garden
8. When the garden is in blossom, the one _______ has been rewarded.
A. living in the country B. having spent time working in the garden花时间在花园里工作
C. having a garden of his own D. having been digging, planting and watering
9. People who think happiness lies in the city life would feel that _______ if they had to live outside London.
A. their life was meaningless 他们的生活毫无意义 B. their life was invaluable
C. they didn’t deserve a happy life D. they were not worthy of their happy life
10. The underlined phrase get away from in the 3rd paragraph refers to _______.
在第3段中，划线的词组get away from指_______。
A. deal with B. do away with
C. escape from 逃脱某个地方 D. prevent from
第三部分：词汇与结构(2017年12月统考)翻译版 1.55个标成红色的题目,重点复习,得分值6分 2.次重点41个为除红色外12月出现频率较高的题目,分值为4分,重点掌握 ......